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The first four tasks will determine the mechanisms by which alveolar cells sense stimuli, elucidate signal transduction pathways elicited by these sensors and examine the results of the stimuli on epithelial cellular sodium pump function, cell cytoskeleton and cell function and survival. The fifth project shall examine the mechanisms by which stretch improves non-viral gene transfer to the lung. The projects will promote development of novel tools to research the downstream ramifications of these stimuli on the framework, function and survival of alveolar epithelial cells.Discussion We have identified autosomal recessive CARD9 insufficiency as a potential genetic cause of deep dermatophytosis. This broadens the spectrum of severe fungal infections that are associated with CARD9 deficiency. Subsequent to the Q295X non-sense mutation and the compound heterozygote missense mutations G72S and R373P previously reported,26,27 we identified two new Cards9 mutations. One was a missense mutation , and the other was a non-sense mutation . Individuals homozygous for these deleterious alleles had been found in four countries ; the prevalence of parental consanguinity is high in these national countries. Five Algerian family members and two Tunisian families carried the same Q289X mutation due to a founder effect, with recent common ancestor living 975 years ago approximately.