It continues to surface in other physiological illnesses and functions.

Symposia X: Novel Integration Seats: David Webb, PhD, University of Edinburgh, UK Adviye Ergul, MD, PhD, Georgia Regents University ET and Neurovascular Coupling Constantino Iadecola, Weill Cornell Medical College Relationship of Endothelin-1 and NLRP3 Activation in HT22 Hippocampal Cells: Relevance to Cognitive Decline in Diabetes Rebecca Ward, Georgia Regents University Endothelin 3 Regulates Pigment Creation and Coating Color in Mice Javier Pino, Florida International University Endothelin Receptor Antagonism in Sickle Cell Nephropathy Olivia Lenoir, INSERM, Paris ETA Receptor Blockade Inhibits Leukocyte Activation and Adhesion in Sickle Cell Disease Diana Gutsaeva, Georgia Regents University..Hoepelman, M.D., Ph.D., Jan A.J.W. Kluytmans, M.D., Ph.D., Wim G. Boersma, M.D., Ph.D., Clara J. Compaijen, M.D., Eva van der Wall structure, M.D., Jan M. Prins, M.D., Ph.D., Jan J. Oosterheert, M.D., Ph.D., and Marc J.M. Bonten, M.D., Ph.D. For the CAP-START Study Group: Antibiotic Treatment Strategies for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults Community-acquired pneumonia is normally a leading reason behind hospitalization and death world-wide.1-3 Most guidelines advise that antibiotic treatment be based on the severity of disease at presentation, assessed either based on the level of care needed or based on a prognostic risk score. These guidelines have increased the usage of fluoroquinolones and macrolides, although these antibiotic classes have already been associated with increased advancement of resistance.7,8 The data in support of these recommendations is limited.9-13 The recommendation to include a macrolide to a beta-lactam is based on observational studies, which are prone to confounding by indication.14 Although fluoroquinolones have been evaluated in randomized, controlled trials, their superiority over beta-lactam monotherapy has not been demonstrated.15,16 Moreover, the full total results of randomized, controlled trials may be suffering from in-hospital antibiotic exposure that occurs before randomization17, 18 and also have restrictive inclusion criteria often, which limit the generalizability of their leads to daily practice.